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Test Bank For Nutritional Foundations And Clinical Applications A Nursing Approach 6th Edition

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Test Bank For Nutritional Foundations And Clinical Applications A Nursing Approach 6th Edition

Chapter 06: Protein
Grodner and Escott-Stump: Nutritional Foundations and Clinical Application: A Nursing Approach, 6th Edition
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1.If a person were to eat a diet that provided carbohydrate, fat, and micronutrients, but very little protein, for example if he or she ate only whole-wheat pita bread with olive oil,
a. the body would manufacture amino acids to make essential proteins from fatty acids and glycogen.
b. body metabolism would decrease to conserve amino acids until protein intake was resumed.
c. the liver would recirculate amino acids instead of breaking them down and excreting urea.
d. the body would break down muscle tissue to provide amino acids to make essential proteins.
ANS: D
The body needs regular dietary protein to provide amino acids. If no protein is eaten in the diet, the body uses muscle tissue to provide amino acids to make essential body proteins. The liver cannot recirculate amino acids; some are always broken down, and the nitrogen portion is excreted as urea. Body metabolism may decrease slightly, but it would not be sufficient to conserve amino acids for any length of time. The body cannot manufacture amino acids from fatty acids and glycogen.
DIF:Cognitive Level: ApplyingREF:Pages 90-92 | Page 94
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiological integrity
2.If a man weighs 190 lb and eats 150 g protein per day, his protein intake is _____ of the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA).
a. less than 100%
b. between 100% and 150%
c. between 150% and 200%
d. greater than 200%
ANS: D
The RDA for protein is 0.8 g per kilogram of body weight. This man’s weight is 190 lb, or 86 kg; 86 kg ´ 0.8 = 69.1 g protein per day. Thus, an intake of 150 g is more than twice his RDA of 69.1 g of protein per day.
DIF:Cognitive Level: ApplyingREF:Page 97
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance
3.Some proteins contain an alpha helix, which is part of their _____ structure.
a. primary
b. secondary
c. tertiary
d. quaternary
ANS: B
The alpha helix structure is an example of the secondary structure of proteins. The primary structure is the amino acid sequence. The tertiary structure comprises bonds that form within chains in loops or folds. Quaternary structure is formed by combinations of more than one polypeptide.
DIF:Cognitive Level: UnderstandingREF:Page 92
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance
4.The most accurate statement about amino acids is that
a. most amino acids contain sulfur.
b. they are stored in the liver for use when needed.
c. essential amino acids cannot be manufactured by body cells.
d. nonessential amino acids cannot be manufactured body cells.
ANS: C
Body cells cannot manufacture essential amino acids. Cells can make nonessential amino acids from essential amino acids. The liver is not able to store significant amounts of amino acids. Some but not most amino acids contain sulfur.
DIF:Cognitive Level: ApplyingREF:Page 90 | Page 96
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiological integrity
5.Nonessential amino acids can be made by the liver from
a. glucose and urea.
b. other amino acids.
c. fatty acids and glycerol.
d. enzymes and hormones.
ANS: B
The body can make nonessential amino acids from other amino acids. Once the amino group has been removed from an amino acid and has been formed into urea, the body cannot turn it back into an amino acid. Fatty acids and glycerol cannot be used to make amino acids. Enzymes and hormones may help control the manufacture of nonessential amino acids but are not themselves used to make them.
DIF:Cognitive Level: UnderstandingREF:Pages 90-91
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiological integrity
6.If a person usually ate 2 ounces of lean meat at lunchtime and decided to substitute cooked lentils instead, how much of the lentils would the person need to eat?
a. 2 tablespoons
b.   cup
c.   cup
d. 1 cup
ANS: B
Each ounce of meat is equivalent to   cup cooked dry peas or lentils. Therefore, 2 oz of meat would be equivalent to   cup.
DIF:Cognitive Level: ApplyingREF:Page 91
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiological integrity
7.Body proteins may become denatured in the presence of a
a. drug overdose.
b. very high fever.
c. vitamin deficiency.
d. high stress level.
ANS: B
Very high fever may denature body proteins because the extreme heat changes the shape of the protein. Drug overdoses, vitamin deficiencies, and high stress levels do not cause proteins to become denatured.
DIF:Cognitive Level: ApplyingREF:Page 92
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiological integrity
8.The most important function of hydrochloric acid in the stomach is to
a. convert pepsinogen to its active enzyme form, pepsin.
b. denature dietary proteins to allow digestion.
c. kill bacteria in food and prevent foodborne illness.
d. stop the action of salivary amylase.
ANS: A
Hydrochloric acid is essential in the stomach for activating pepsinogen to pepsin in order to begin protein digestion. The acid does denature some proteins, but this is not essential to digestion. Stomach acid may play a role in killing pathogenic bacteria and does stop the action of salivary amylase, but these effects are less important.
DIF:Cognitive Level: RememberingREF:Page 93 | Page 95
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiological integrity
9.A patient fell off a bicycle and broke one arm and one leg. Immediately after the accident, the patient’s body will be in a state of
a. anabolism.
b. catabolism.
c. deamination.
d. hypermetabolism.
ANS: B
Immediately after a serious accident, the physical stress, immobility, and need to break down damaged tissues cause loss of tissue through catabolism. Anabolism occurs when new protein is being formed during growth or healing. Deamination is one part of catabolism; it involves removal of the amino group when amino acids are broken down. Hypermetabolism is a term that describes an increased state of metabolism in general.
DIF:Cognitive Level: ApplyingREF:Pages 94-95
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiological integrity
10.Without vitamin B6, the body would be unable to
a. absorb amino acids.
b. digest proteins.
c. convert ammonia to urea.
d. regulate acid-base balance.
ANS: A
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) is needed as a carrier for absorption of amino acids. It has several roles in protein metabolism, but it is not needed for protein digestion or for conversion of ammonia from protein breakdown to urea in the liver. Pyridoxine is not involved in regulation of acid-base balance.
DIF:Cognitive Level: UnderstandingREF:Page 94
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiological integrity

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