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Research Methods A Modular Approach 2nd Edition by Jackson - Test Bank

Research Methods A Modular Approach 2nd Edition by Jackson – Test Bank

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2nd Edition
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Description

Research Methods A Modular Approach 2nd Edition by Jackson – Test Bank

Module 5

Defining, Measuring, and Manipulating Variables

Chapter Outline

Defining Variables
Properties of Measurement
Scales of Measurement
  Nominal Scale
Ordinal Scale
Interval Scale
Ratio Scale
Discrete and Continuous Variables
Types of Measures
Self-report Measures
Tests
Behavioral Measures
Physical Measures
Summary

Review of Key Terms

Absolute Zero—A property of measurement in which assigning a score of zero indicates an absence of the variable being measured.

Behavioral Measures—Measures taken by carefully observing and recording behavior.

Continuous Variables—Variables that usually fall along a continuum and allow for fractional amounts.

Discrete Variables—Variables that usually consist of whole number units or categories and are made up of chunks or units that are detached and distinct from one another.

Equal Unit Size—A property of measurement in which a difference of 1 means the same amount throughout the entire scale.

Identity—A property of measurement in which objects that are different receive different scores.

Interval Scale—A scale in which the units of measurement (intervals) between the numbers on the scale are all equal in size.

Magnitude—A property of measurement in which the ordering of numbers reflects the ordering of the variable.

Nominal Scale—A scale in which objects or individuals are broken into categories that have no numerical properties.

Operational Definition—A definition of a variable in terms of the operations (activities) a researcher uses to measure or manipulate it.

Ordinal Scale—A scale in which objects or individuals are categorized and the categories form a rank order along a continuum.

Physical Measures—Measures of bodily activity (such as pulse or blood pressure) that may be taken with a piece of equipment.

Ratio Scale—A scale in which, in addition to order and equal units of measurement, there is an absolute zero that indicates an absence of the variable being measured.

Reactivity—A possible reaction by participants in which they act unnaturally because they know they are being observed.

Self-report Measures—Usually questionnaires or interviews that measure how people report that they act, think, or feel.

Tests—A measurement instrument used to assess individual differences in various content areas.

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